Bello, David. Opium and the Limits of Empire. Harvard: Harvard University Press, 2005.

The Opium Wars represent one of the most famous incidents of Western intrusion into Chinese domestic policy. This book shows how the Qing Dynasty’s struggles to contain the Opium trade was complicated by internal and external factors, with the main thesis being that China was motivated to try and stop the importing of opium for purely economic reasons. It also offers an explanation as to why Britain relied so heavily economically on a triangular trade involving themselves, China and India, with opium being a key component. Throughout this work the Opium Wars are viewed as a central historical event within China’s colonial history, and the significance of this in Macau is mentioned in my historical page of that city.

Cheng, Christina. Macau: A Cultural Janus. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1999.

Generally unorganized and somewhat unfocused, it nevertheless offers a few interesting connections between colonialism and modern Macau society. Its discussion on Macanese cuisine, for example, shows how continual exposure to European culture helped create a unique Macanese flavor. A line from the book is mentioned in my blog on The Eight.

Clayton, Cathryn. Sovereignty at the Edge: Macau and the Question of Chineseness. Cambridge: Harvard University Press: 2009.

This book analyses the complex relation between Macau and China. It offers several informative anecdotes, and is very thorough. It’s recent publication made it very useful in informing me of the more current events of significance, and offered me a scholarly view of the modern city of Macau. It is referenced multiple times in my own narrative of Macau.

Cremer, R. D. ed. Macau: City of Commerce and Culture. Hong Kong: UAE Press, 1987

Although a little outdated, this book nevertheless provides a very thorough look at Macau’s history and also offers an interesting analysis of the Macau economy during the 1980’s. The article on gambling was especially helpful for the information it gave regarding the origins of Macau’s casinos, and their importance in the local economy. It was the primary source for my historical page of Macau.

Dittmer, Lowell and Guoli Liu, eds. China’s Deep Reform:Domestic Politics in Transition. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc, 2006.

I primarily used the article Historical Echoes and Chinese Politics by Joseph Fewsmith. This article discusses how recent historical events from the 19th and 20th century have been relevant in China’s current political environment. His comments about Nationalism were especially useful and is referenced in my narrative page on Qingdao.

Goodman, Bryan and David S. G. Goodman, ed. Twentieth Century Colonialism: Localities, the everday and the World. New York: Routledge, 2012.

The single most complete and informative book on colonialism as a whole within China. This is mainly evident in the introduction (referenced in my front page), which ties together the contents of the book which includes a number of well written articles about Colonialism within specific Chinese cities. The articles on Macau was not as useful as it dealt with the decade of the 1960’s, which will not be discussed in depth on this site. However, the chapter on Qingdao offered some insights into German colonial rule and is referenced extensively in my Qingdao narrative.

Guo, Yingjie. Cultural Nationalism in Contemporary China. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2004.

As the title suggests this book discusses the role of Nationalism in modern China. It gives an extensive accounts of what kinds of nationalisms exist in China and also draws connections between nationalism and post colonialism. An analysis was also given about how scholars in China view scholars with a Chinese focus, who are not of Chinese descent (117). This work is referenced in my Qingdao narrative.

Haeger, John. Crisis and Prosperity in Sung China. Tuscon: University of Arizona Press, 1975

The article, written by Rolf Trauzettel, discusses how early Chinese nationalism formed followed the invasion of the Song Dynasty by the Jurchen Jin. It was quoted from in my interview with Michael Nylan and was also referenced in my personal narrative of nationalism in Qingdao.

Hao, Yufan, C. X. George Wei, and Lowell Dittmer, eds. Challenges to Chinese Foreign Policy. Lexington: University of Kentucky, 2009.

The conclusion of this work was of particular interest to me, and I found that it gave an excellent assessment of China’s current political economic situation. It also looks to the future and explains potential problems China may face. A passage of this work was referenced in Colonialism Past, Present, and Future.

He, Baogang and Yingjie Guo. Nationalism, National Identity and Deomcratization in China. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2000.

My main source for information on nationalism and its current role in China. Its reference to Anthony Smith’s definition of nationalism was the basis of the definition given in the glossary. It offered only a limited explanation of Chinese history however so this information had to be gathered from other sources. I disagreed with most of He’s arguments, but a few of them are mentioned in my Qingdao narrative.

Li, Li. “Beer City.” Beijing Review. 52.38 (Sep. 24, 2009): 16-17. Print.

This article covered the history and explained the modern significance of the famous Tsingtao Brewery in Qingdao. Mainly useful to confirm information I had heard while in Qingdao though it also offered a few interesting facts, one of which was referenced in my narrative of Qingdao.

Mungello, D. E. The Great Encounter of China and the West, 1500-1800. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2005.

Although the title is meant to focus more on China and the West’s interactions generally, the book offers a great deal of information of Macau and its role as a gateway between the East and West. Because the book ends its account in 1800 it offered little information about the official colonial period. This source was used for my page  ‘History of Macau as a Portuguese Colony.’

Myers, Ramon H. and Mark R. Peattie. The Japanese Colonial Empire 1895-1945. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Press, 1984

Offers a good historical perspective on Japan’s colonial expansion. It was especially useful because of its specific account of how Japan took over Qingdao from Germany. I also used this source for the historical background on the blogs about the Senkaku/Diaoyu Island issue.

Porter, Jonathan. “The Transformation of Macau.” Pacific Affairs. 66.1 (1993): 7-20. Print

This article gives a short, concise history of Macau, which was very useful as it included some demographic info, and broke the last few hundred years of history into four distinct categories. However it’s assessment of Macau and its predictions for the future showed that it was just a little outdated. His book was referenced in both my historical page and my narrative of Macau.

Steinmetz, George. The Devil’s Handwriting. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2005

Discusses German colonies in three different regions of the world, Qingdao being one of them. Its comparison of the three regions in the conclusion was very informative as were its very in-depth account of the politics of the German bureaucracy in Qingdao. However the book did tend to focus a little bit more on the German side of the experience, which for my purposes was not quite as useful. Nevertheless it is referenced heavily in Qingdao’s historical page.

Wei, C.X. George. Sino-American Economic Relations, 1944-1949. Westport:Greenwood Press, 1997.

The conclusion of this work focuses on the effects of America on post-WWII China, but still points to Western influence and colonialism on China’s general economic policy. His comments on how Chinese fears played into their eventual economic policies was particularly interesting. He also discusses some of the difficulties in trying to measure the influence of the West on China’s economy. Mentioned only once on my nationalism page for Qingdao.

Wiarda, Ieda Siqueira and Lucy M. Cohen. Macau: Cultural Dialogue Towards a New Millenium. Xlibris Corporation, 2004.

Based on a panel discussion this book offers a somewhat brief overview of Macau history through a few different perspectives. Architecture, trade, and the influence of Hong Kong are also discussed. The panel was held shortly before the hand over of Macau to China in 1999. It was important for my narrative on Macau.